Blog - Estate Planning

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Revocable Living Trust Michigan: Comprehensive Guide & Benefits

Considering a revocable living trust in Michigan? Understanding the ins and outs of this legal tool is vital for effective estate planning. From probate avoidance to ensuring your assets are distributed per your wishes, a living trust can offer significant benefits. Dive into this guide to grasp the essential information you need to make informed decisions about establishing a living trust in Michigan.

Understanding Living Trusts in Michigan

Definition of Living Trust

A living trust is a legal document that holds your assets during your lifetime and distributes them after your death. Unlike a will, which goes through probate court, a living trust allows for the seamless transfer of assets to beneficiaries.

Benefits of Living Trust in Michigan

  • Avoiding Probate: A living trust in Michigan helps bypass the lengthy and costly probate process, ensuring privacy and efficiency. It also helps avoid probate if you own property in another state.
  • Incapacity Planning: With a living trust, you can appoint a trustee to manage your affairs if you become incapacitated, avoiding the need for court intervention.
  • Flexibility: Living trusts offer flexibility as they can be amended or revoked during your lifetime based on changing circumstances.

Key Elements for Creating a Valid Living Trust in Michigan

  1. Trustee Appointment: Designate a trustworthy individual or institution as the trustee responsible for managing the trust assets.
  2. Asset Funding: Transfer ownership of assets into the trust by re-titling them under the trust's name to ensure they are included in the estate plan.
  3. Beneficiary Designation: Clearly outline who will inherit specific assets upon your passing to avoid confusion or disputes among beneficiaries.

Creating a Living Trust in Michigan

Setting Up

To create a living trust in Michigan, first gather all necessary information about your assets and beneficiaries. Next, connect with an experienced attorney who can draft a trust document outlining how you want your assets managed and distributed after your death.

When setting up your living trust, consider seeking legal advice to ensure that all aspects are properly addressed. Remember to review and update your trust regularly to reflect any changes in circumstances or beneficiaries.

Choosing a Trustee

Selecting the right trustee is crucial for the success of your living trust. Ensure they are reliable, organized, and capable of managing finances responsibly. A trustee has a fiduciary duty, which means they have an obligation to act in the best interests of the person they are acting for, not in their own. 

Michigan fiduciary duties are outlined in the Estates and Protected Individuals Code (EPIC), and these duties are similar across most states, such as the duties of loyalty, impartiality, preserving trust property, keeping good records, prudently investing assets, informing beneficiaries, no commingling of assets, and no self-dealing.

Often family members will automatically choose the oldest child, or another responsible person they trust, to perform these duties. However, it is a job, and the more complex the assets and type of trust, the more a professional trustee should be considered, especially if there is a history of family discord. 

Role of a Notary

A notary plays an essential role in the creation of a living trust in Michigan by validating the trust document through notarization. This step ensures that the document is legally binding by validating the identity of the person creating and signing the trust agreement. 

Necessity of a Michigan Living Trust

Estate Planning

Creating a living trust in Michigan is essential for effective estate planning. It allows individuals to dictate how their assets should be distributed upon their passing, ensuring their wishes are carried out accurately. Unlike a will, a living trust bypasses probate court, expediting the transfer of assets to beneficiaries.

A living trust offers flexibility and control over one's assets during their lifetime and after death. This legal document provides clear instructions on asset distribution, reducing the likelihood of disputes among family members regarding inheritance. By establishing a living trust, individuals can ensure their loved ones are provided for according to their specific intentions.

Avoiding Guardianship and Conservatorship

One significant advantage of having a living trust is the ability to avoid guardianship or conservatorship proceedings. In the event of incapacity or disability, the appointed successor trustee can manage the trust assets without court intervention. This not only streamlines decision-making processes but also protects the individual's interests by avoiding expensive potential court conflicts associated with these appointments.

Avoiding Probate

A living trust in Michigan offers the advantage of bypassing probate, ensuring a smoother transfer of assets after death. Distribution to heirs can occur much more quickly, often within weeks instead of months or years. Taking the time to establish a living trust ultimately saves time and money for beneficiaries, as probate proceedings can be lengthy and costly.

Another key benefit is the privacy that a living trust provides compared to the public nature of a will. While wills become public record upon probate, exposing personal and financial details to anyone who wishes to access them, living trusts remain private documents. This confidentiality shields sensitive information from public scrutiny and maintains the privacy of asset distribution arrangements.

Preventing Court Control of Assets

Avoiding Interference

A living trust in Michigan helps prevent court control over assets by allowing for the direct transfer of ownership upon the grantor's passing. This bypasses the need for probate court involvement, ensuring a smoother and more private asset distribution process.

Risks of Court Control

Without a living trust, assets in Michigan may be subject to court supervision, potentially leading to delays, increased costs, and lack of privacy. The involvement of the attorney general or state authorities can further complicate matters and limit autonomy in asset distribution.

Autonomy and Flexibility

A living trust offers individuals greater autonomy and flexibility in managing their assets during their lifetime and after death. By specifying detailed instructions within the trust document, grantors can ensure that their assets are distributed according to their wishes without external interference. They have the power to adjust or amend the terms of the trust at any time per their changing circumstances.

This also means they can manage their financial security without interference. Grantors retain ownership and control of various assets like retirement accounts, personal property, real estate, and more. This level of control ensures that their wishes are carried out effectively.

Estate Taxes and Living Trusts in Michigan

Tax Implications

Estate taxes in Michigan can significantly impact the assets you leave behind. By establishing a living trust, individuals can potentially reduce or eliminate these taxes.

Transferring assets held within a living trust may also receive favorable tax treatment, providing beneficiaries with more substantial inheritances.

Strategies for Tax Reduction

Proper trust planning is essential for reducing estate taxes in Michigan. By setting up specific types of trusts, such as irrevocable trusts or charitable remainder trusts, individuals can strategically lower their tax liabilities.

Utilizing techniques like gifting assets during one's lifetime or leveraging life insurance policies within a trust structure are effective ways to minimize estate taxes.

Complementing Your Trust with a Will

Role of a Will

A will plays a crucial role in complementing a living trust for comprehensive estate planning. The trustee of a living trust deals with assets owned by the trust that are transferred into it during one's lifetime, usually through deeds, re-titling assets, or naming the trust as a beneficiary. However, there are times when one may forget to deed a property to the trust or change a beneficiary designation and, therefore, have to go through probate. 

A will, as part of a trust-based estate plan, will “pour” the probate assets into the trust to then be administered according to the trust terms. This ensures that all assets are accounted for and distributed according to the individual's wishes upon their passing. This dual approach of utilizing both a living trust and a will provides an extra layer of protection and clarity in estate distribution.

Importance of Regular Updates

Three elements of change require one to regularly revisit their estate plan: changes in the law, changes in relationships, and changes in assets. Regularly updating your estate plan to reflect changing circumstances is essential. Failing to update these documents could result in unintended consequences or outdated provisions being enforced during estate distribution. By keeping these documents current, individuals ensure that their wishes are accurately represented even as life events unfold.

Closing Thoughts

A living trust in Michigan offers a robust solution for individuals seeking to safeguard their assets, avoid probate, and maintain control over their estates. By understanding the intricacies of creating and managing a trust, one can effectively protect their wealth and ensure a smooth transfer of assets to beneficiaries. The flexibility of combining a living trust with a will further solidifies an individual's estate plan, providing comprehensive coverage for various scenarios.

To reap the full benefits of a Michigan living trust, it is crucial to consult with legal professionals specializing in estate planning. At Michigan Law Center, we’re here for you. Let us help you take proactive steps today to secure your legacy and protect your loved ones' financial future. Embrace the power of a well-crafted living trust to navigate the complexities of estate management with confidence and peace of mind.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a living trust in Michigan?

A living trust in Michigan is a legal arrangement where your assets are placed into a trust during your lifetime, managed by a trustee (often yourself), and transferred to beneficiaries upon your death without the need for probate.

How can I create a living trust in Michigan?

To create a living trust in Michigan, you typically need to draft a trust document outlining the terms, appoint trustees and beneficiaries, transfer ownership of assets to the trust, and ensure it complies with Michigan state laws.

Why is having a Michigan living trust necessary?

Having a Michigan living trust helps avoid probate, maintain privacy (since trusts are not public record like wills), provide flexibility in managing assets during incapacity, and enable smoother distribution of assets to beneficiaries after death.

Can I prevent court control of my assets with a Michigan living trust?

Yes. By creating a revocable living trust in Michigan, you can prevent court control over your assets because the trustee manages them according to your instructions without involving the probate court.

Should I compliment my Michigan living trust with a will?

While not mandatory, it is advisable to have both. A will can cover any assets inadvertently left out of the trust and designate guardians for minor children. It acts as backup documentation supporting the provisions outlined in your living trust.

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Wills and Trusts Attorney: Estate Planning Made Easy

In need of legal guidance for wills and trusts matters? An experienced estate planning attorney can provide expert advice on planning, asset distribution, and ensuring your wishes are carried out. These professionals specialize in drafting documents like wills, trusts, and powers of attorney to protect your assets and loved ones. With their knowledge and experience, you can navigate complex legal processes with confidence and secure your legacy.

Estate Planning Made Easy

Key Assets

Key assets in estate planning include properties, investments, savings accounts, and valuable possessions. Providing a clear list of assets helps streamline the distribution process for your beneficiaries.


When planning your estate, you must thoughtfully determine the beneficiaries who will inherit your assets and how they should receive them. This can be family members, friends, or even charitable organizations. Clearly outlining who receives what ensures that your wishes are carried out effectively.

Healthcare Wishes

Another key aspect of estate planning is determining your healthcare wishes. In the event you become incapacitated, having a healthcare directive in place ensures that your medical preferences are known and respected by your loved ones and healthcare providers.

Fiduciary Selection

A fiduciary is the legal term for someone who acts on behalf of another. In completing your estate plan, you will be asked to nominate an individual and alternates to serve in different roles, such as an agent for managing your health care, an agent for managing financial and legal matters, a personal representative to handle probate matters, and a trustee to administer your trust. 

Choosing the best person to serve in each role is paramount. Your situation may call for a professional to be involved. An experienced estate planning attorney can help provide guidance on how to choose the right person or organization that suits the role that is needed, as well as create checks and balances. 

Creating Your Estate Plan

Drafting a Will

A will is used to clearly outline how you want your assets distributed after your passing. Be specific about who should inherit what, including personal belongings, real estate, investments, and other valuable possessions.

Ensure to appoint an executor in the will who will be responsible for carrying out your wishes and handling the distribution of assets according to your instructions. This individual plays a vital role in executing your estate plan smoothly and efficiently.

Establishing a Trust

Establishing a trust allows you to set aside assets for specific purposes or beneficiaries. Unlike a will, a trust can provide more control over how and when your assets are distributed. It also offers benefits such as avoiding probate, maintaining privacy, and potentially reducing estate taxes.

Consider the type of trust that aligns with your goals. This could be a revocable living trust for flexibility during your lifetime or an irrevocable trust for asset protection and tax advantages.

Designating Powers of Attorney

Designating powers of attorney is essential for ensuring someone can make financial and healthcare decisions on your behalf if you become incapacitated. By designating powers of attorney, you empower trusted individuals to manage your affairs according to your wishes when you are unable to do so yourself. It's advisable to choose individuals who are reliable, trustworthy, and capable of handling these responsibilities with diligence and care.

Understanding Wills and Trusts

Wills vs. Trusts

Wills are legal documents that outline how probate assets should be distributed after death, while trusts manage assets during life and after death. A will goes into effect only after you die, whereas a trust can be utilized to manage your assets if you become incapacitated.

The Probate Process

  • Probate is the legal process of validating a will and distributing assets according to its terms.
  • It involves court supervision, which can lead to delays in asset distribution and incur additional costs.

Avoiding Probate with Trusts

  • Establishing a trust allows for the transfer of assets outside of probate court proceedings.
  • This offers privacy by keeping details of asset distribution confidential compared to wills that become public record through probate.

Navigating the Probate Process

Gathering Documents

Gather all necessary documents for probate, including the will, death certificate, and financial statements. Ensure you have a clear understanding of the deceased person's assets and debts to facilitate the probate process smoothly.

Notifying Creditors

Notify all creditors about the death to begin settling outstanding debts. This step is crucial in ensuring that debts are properly managed before distributing assets. Settling debts promptly can prevent complications during asset distribution and help streamline the overall probate process.

Distributing Assets

Distribute assets according to either the terms outlined in the will or as per state law if there is no will available. Ensure fairness in distributing assets among beneficiaries. Consider seeking legal advice from a wills and trusts attorney to make informed decisions regarding asset distribution, especially when minor children are involved.

Estate Planning Expertise

Common Questions

Estate planning in Michigan often raises several questions among individuals. Understanding the intricacies of wills and trusts can be overwhelming. Seeking guidance from a wills and trusts attorney helps clarify doubts and ensures decisions align with state laws.

Resource Guidance

Accessing reliable resources is crucial for effective estate planning. In Michigan, individuals can benefit from online tools, community seminars, and legal aid clinics to enhance their understanding of asset protection strategies. These resources empower clients to make informed decisions about their estates.

Client Communication

Establishing a robust client relationship involves transparent communication regarding legal terms and decisions. A skilled attorney simplifies complex concepts, ensuring that everyone involved comprehends the implications within minutes of discussion. This clarity fosters trust and peace of mind for families navigating estate planning complexities in Michigan.

Smooth Estate Settlement Process

Clear Communication

Effective communication with beneficiaries is crucial for a smooth estate settlement process. Clearly outlining the details of the will or trust can prevent misunderstandings and conflicts.

Professional Guidance

For complex estates, it is advisable to seek professional guidance from a probate and estate planning attorney. Their expertise can navigate intricate legal matters and ensure all aspects of the estate are properly handled.

Prompt Dispute Resolution

In cases where disputes arise among beneficiaries, it is essential to resolve any conflicts promptly and fairly. Engaging in mediation or legal intervention can help reach amicable solutions and prevent prolonged disagreements.

Achieving Peace of Mind in Estate Planning

Regular Review and Updates

Regularly reviewing and updating your estate plan is crucial to ensure it aligns with your current wishes and financial situation. Changes in laws or personal circumstances may necessitate adjustments to your wills and trusts. Set a reminder to review your plan annually.

Open Communication with Loved Ones

Discussing your wishes with loved ones can prevent confusion and disputes after death. Clearly communicate who will inherit what assets, especially for sentimental items. This transparency can provide clarity and avoid potential conflicts among family members.

Secure Important Documents

Securing important documents in a safe place is essential for an efficient estate settlement process. Store documents such as wills, trusts, insurance policies, and property deeds in a fireproof safe or a secure location known to trusted individuals. Make sure these documents are easily accessible when needed.

Getting Started with Your Estate Plan Today

Schedule Consultation

Begin by scheduling a consultation with an estate planning attorney to discuss your wishes and legal options. This initial meeting typically lasts 30 minutes. Arrive prepared with questions about wills, trusts, and other estate planning tools. The attorney will guide you through the process based on your unique circumstances.

Organize Information

Gather all your financial and personal information before meeting the attorney. This includes bank statements, property deeds, insurance policies, and a list of beneficiaries. Having these documents ready streamlines the planning process and ensures that nothing important is overlooked.

Take the First Step

By taking this crucial step, you are securing your legacy for future generations. It is essential to have a clear plan in place to protect your assets and provide for your loved ones after you're gone. Don't wait until it's too late. Start the estate planning process today to safeguard your family's financial future.

Closing Thoughts

In navigating the complexities of estate planning, securing a wills and trusts attorney is paramount. Understanding the nuances of wills, trusts, and probate processes can be overwhelming, but with Michigan-specific expertise, achieving a smooth estate settlement process becomes feasible. 

By taking the first step today towards creating an estate plan tailored to your needs, you pave the way for peace of mind in knowing your legacy is protected. Your future self and loved ones will thank you for the foresight and care invested in securing their financial well-being. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the importance of having an estate plan?

Having an estate plan ensures that your assets are distributed according to your wishes, minimizes family disputes, and can help reduce tax burdens on your heirs.

How do wills and trusts differ in estate planning?

Wills specify how assets are distributed after death, while trusts allow for ongoing management of assets before and after death, potentially avoiding probate.

When should I consider hiring a wills and trusts attorney?

It is advisable to consult with a wills and trusts attorney when you have significant assets, complex family situations, or wish to minimize taxes on your estate.

What is the probate process and why should I be aware of it?

Probate is the legal process of administering an individual's estate after their passing. Understanding probate helps ensure efficient asset distribution and minimizes delays for beneficiaries.

How can Michigan-specific expertise benefit my estate planning needs?

Michigan-specific expertise ensures that your estate plan complies with state laws, maximizing the protection of your assets and minimizing potential challenges during the settlement process.

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Choosing the Right Michigan Attorney for Estate Planning

Choosing the Right Michigan Attorney for Estate Planning

Looking for an estate planning attorney in Michigan? Navigating the complexities of estate planning and probate can be daunting but having the right legal guidance can make this process simple. Whether you need assistance with wills, trusts, or estate administration, a skilled estate planning attorney can provide invaluable expertise and support, ensuring your compliance with Michigan's estate laws and the protection of your assets.

Understanding the Role of a Michigan Estate Attorney

Legal Services & Expert Guidance

Michigan estate planning attorneys specialize in managing wills, trusts, and probate matters, such as asset distribution and guardianship issues. These professionals help individuals navigate the nuances of estate planning, providing clients with peace of mind and security of their assets after they pass away. Moreover, these attorneys assist in minimizing tax liabilities for beneficiaries by employing various strategies within the confines of Michigan's tax laws.

Another aspect of an estate planning attorney's role is offering expert guidance on establishing durable powers of attorney and healthcare directives. These documents ensure that an individual's medical decisions are legally binding even if they become incapacitated. Without proper power of attorney documents in place, your loved one will be forced to open probate proceedings to manage your affairs and make decisions on your behalf.

Estate planning attorneys can also advise clients on selecting suitable guardians for minor children or individuals who cannot care for themselves. Their expertise helps individuals make informed decisions about appointing responsible guardians who can effectively manage the care and well-being of their loved ones.

Key Considerations When Choosing an Estate Planning Attorney

Specialization in Estate Planning Law

When seeking a good estate planning attorney, it's crucial to consider their specialization and experience. An attorney who solely practices estate planning will possess the expertise and experience necessary to navigate even the most complex familial and financial situations. For example, they have specialized knowledge on how to handle blended families, large assets, and inheritance tax laws; knowledge that a general practitioner may not possess. These attorneys will have a strong understanding of Michigan state laws pertaining to estates, wills, trusts, and probate in order to best serve their clients and the distribution of their assets. 

If you need guidance in planning for a loved one with disabilities, choosing an attorney with enhanced knowledge, resources, and experience is crucial. Planning in these situations calls upon more than just good document drafting, but knowledge of public benefits, and other resources to bring together a complete plan. The more specialized your family's needs, the higher degree of expertise is needed in a planner.   

Communication Style and Client Relationships

Assessing an attorney's communication style and approach to client relationships is important when selecting the right estate planning attorney. A good estate planning lawyer should be able to explain complex legal concepts in plain language while maintaining open lines of communication throughout the process.

Furthermore, pay attention to how comfortable you feel interacting with the attorney during initial consultations. A compassionate yet professional demeanor can make a significant difference in ensuring that your wishes are accurately reflected in your estate plan.

Seeking Referrals for Trusted Estate Planning Professionals

Seek Referrals

When seeking a Michigan estate planning attorney, start by asking for referrals from friends, family, or financial advisors. These individuals may have firsthand experience with reputable professionals who specialize in estate plans and can provide valuable insights.

Research Online Reviews

In addition to personal referrals, take the time to research online reviews and testimonials about different estate planning attorneys. Look for consistent positive feedback that highlights their expertise in creating wills, establishing trusts, and offering sound legal advice.

Asking your network of contacts for recommendations can help you identify potential candidates. Moreover, exploring online resources such as review platforms and legal directories can offer further insight into the reputation and track record of various estate planning professionals.

Assessing the Experience and Expertise of Estate Attorneys

Years of Experience

When choosing an estate planning attorney, it's beneficial to assess their years of experience in handling estate planning cases. An attorney with many years of experience is likely to have encountered various complex scenarios, which has refined their skills and knowledge in the field. 

Expertise in Drafting Plans

Years of experience can be reflective of an estate planning attorney's expertise in drafting comprehensive estate plans. A skilled attorney will be well-versed in creating tailored plans that align with your specific needs and objectives.

For example, estate planning attorneys are knowledgeable on different types of trusts, such as special needs trusts, that take into consideration an individual’s specific circumstances. Their specialized knowledge enables them to provide valuable advice and guidance when structuring an effective plan for your life and assets.

Essential Questions to Interview a Prospective Estate Attorney

Approach to Updating and Maintaining Estate Plans

When interviewing a Michigan estate attorney, it's crucial to inquire about their approach to updating and maintaining estate plans over time. A reliable attorney should have a proactive strategy for ensuring that your estate plan reflects any changes in your life circumstances or the law. For example, they might suggest regular reviews of your estate plan every few years or after major life events such as marriage, divorce, or the birth of children.

It's important to understand how the attorney will keep track of changes in laws that may affect your estate planning. You could ask if they provide newsletters, seminars, or other forms of communication to keep their clients informed about relevant legal developments.

Strategies for Minimizing Family Disputes

Another essential question is related to the prospective attorney's strategies for minimizing potential family disputes over inheritances. A skilled Michigan estate attorney should be able to discuss various methods for reducing conflicts among beneficiaries. They might mention techniques such as clear and detailed communication with all parties involved, using trusts instead of wills for certain assets, or incorporating specific language in documents to clarify intentions.

You can also ask about their experience in resolving family disputes related to estates and how they have successfully navigated these delicate situations in the past.

Understanding Fee Structures and Cost Expectations

Upfront Consultation Fees

When hiring a Michigan estate attorney, it's beneficial to inquire about upfront consultation fees. Some attorneys may offer free initial consultations. Generally, a free consultation is a time to determine whether you and the attorney are a good fit for your needs. Some firms charge for their time and legal advice may be given. This is an essential aspect to consider when choosing an attorney, as it allows you to gauge their expertise without incurring significant costs. 

It's important to discuss the possibility of ongoing retainer costs with your prospective attorney. By understanding the nature of these costs, you can better prepare for any financial commitments that may arise during your working relationship.

Billing Structure for Services

Discussing the billing structure for various estate planning services offered by an estate planning attorney is something to consider. Some attorneys charge flat fees for specific services, while others bill hourly. Understanding this structure will provide valuable insights into how much you can expect to pay based on the legal support required.

It's also advisable to clarify any additional expenses related to document preparation or court representation. These details are crucial in managing your expectations and avoiding unforeseen financial burdens down the line.

Evaluating the Attorney's Professional Affiliations and Certifications

Legal Associations

When seeking a Michigan estate attorney, one may take into account their affiliations with reputable legal associations related to estate planning, if they speak or write for legal publications, or have taken on leadership roles in their professional community. Attorneys who are members of organizations such as the American Academy of Estate Planning Attorneys or the National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys (NAELA), or a specialty section of the State Bar often demonstrate a commitment to staying updated on industry best practices and legal developments.

Attorneys' involvement in these associations can provide clients with assurance that they are receiving representation from professionals who prioritize ongoing education, ethical standards, and comprehensive understanding of estate laws.

Researching an attorney's involvement in community organizations or educational seminars further demonstrates their dedication to staying informed about evolving legal landscapes. This active participation showcases a commitment to continuous learning and engagement within the field of estate planning law.

Finalizing Your Decision on a Michigan Estate Planning Attorney

Reviewing Gathered Information

Before finalizing your decision on a Michigan estate planning attorney, review all the information you've gathered. Consider factors such as their professional affiliations, certifications, and experience. Look at client testimonials or reviews to gauge their reputation and success rate in handling estate planning cases.

When reviewing potential attorneys for your estate planning needs, take into account any specific requirements you may have. For instance, if you have a complex family situation or own substantial assets, look for an attorney who has dealt with similar cases successfully.

Consider reaching out to Michigan Law Center for your legal needs. We specialize in various aspects of estate planning and can provide personalized guidance based on your unique circumstances.

Choosing Michigan Law Center

Michigan Law Center offers comprehensive services ranging from creating wills and trusts to special needs planning. Our team is well-versed in navigating intricate family dynamics and addressing clients' concerns about preserving assets for future generations.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the primary responsibilities of a Michigan estate attorney?

A Michigan estate attorney assists individuals in drafting wills, establishing trusts, and planning for end-of-life matters. They also provide guidance on minimizing estate taxes and ensuring assets are distributed according to the client's wishes.

How can I assess the experience and expertise of an estate attorney?

You can evaluate an estate attorney's experience by reviewing their track record with similar cases, assessing their years in practice, and checking for any specialized certifications or affiliations with reputable legal organizations.

What should I consider when evaluating fee structures and cost expectations for an estate attorney?

When considering fee structures, it's essential to understand whether the attorney charges hourly rates or flat fees. Inquire about any additional costs such as court fees or administrative expenses to accurately gauge your financial commitment.

Why is seeking referrals important when looking for a trusted estate planning professional?

Seeking referrals from friends, family members, or other trusted professionals can provide valuable insights into an attorney's reputation and level of service. Personal recommendations often offer peace of mind during the selection process.

What are some essential questions to ask a prospective Michigan estate planning attorney during an interview?

During interviews with potential attorneys it is crucial to inquire about their approach to complex estates, how they handle disputes among beneficiaries, their strategies for minimizing tax liabilities within estates, and their communication style with clients.

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Michigan Enacts Uniform Power of Attorney Act

On November 7, 2023, Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law Michigan’s House Bill 4644, which enacts the Uniform Power of Attorney Act (UPOAA). Taking effect on July 1, 2024, Michigan will join 30 other states in recognizing a version of this unified framework. This increases uniformity, accessibility, and coherence of Powers of Attorney (POA). Major changes include: 

  • Michigan residents will gain access to a statutory POA form. This should decrease the number of guardianships and conservatorships by giving the public easy access to creating POAs.
  • Notarized POAs will be uniformly accepted. This applies to notarized POAs executed before July 1, 2024, also. 
  • The UPOAA provides a standard set of rules for POAs. For example, if the POA is executed in compliance with certain requirements, the POA will now automatically be durable under the UPOAA.

It is important to note that the UPOAA does not invalidate your current POA, as long as your POA was validly executed. That said, the UPOAA will mandate many changes, and it may be a good time to take a look at your POA. Proactive steps you may wish to take include:

  • Make sure your POA is notarized. If it is not, think about re-executing it to take advantage of the protections that the UPOAA guarantees to acknowledged POAs.
  • Look at your POA and make sure that the agents you selected are still willing to serve in this capacity. Make necessary updates.
  • Provide your agents with copies of your POA documents.
  • Provide copies of your POA to any institutions that would find them necessary, for example financial institutions. Verify that they will accept these POA documents.

Changing regulations and frameworks can make for confusing times. We at Michigan Law Center, PLLC, look forward to helping you with any questions you have about this new system. This is also an excellent time to revisit your estate plan to ensure it meets your goals. Please contact us to book a consultation.

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Our Comprehensive Guide to Estate Planning: Key Components, Tools, and Strategies

Our Comprehensive Guide to Estate Planning: Key Components, Tools, and Strategies

Estate planning is crucial for organizing the distribution of our assets and ensuring our financial affairs are in order. It involves making decisions about inheritance, managing property, and preparing for potential incapacity. Estate plans provide peace of mind by outlining clear instructions for the distribution of assets and can help avoid conflicts among family members after an individual's passing. Understanding the laws and titles involved is essential to ensure that our wishes are carried out as intended. By taking proactive steps in estate planning, we can secure our family's future and bring clarity to a potentially complex event.

Understanding Estate Planning and Its Purpose

Comprehensive Approach

Estate planning is a comprehensive approach to managing our assets during our lifetime and after death. It involves creating legal documents that outline how we want our assets to be distributed and who will make decisions on our behalf.

Estate planning allows us to have control over what happens to our assets, and ensures they are managed according to our wishes even if we become incapacitated or after we pass away.

Protecting Loved Ones and Peace of Mind

Estate planning aims to protect our loved ones and ensure our peace of mind. By creating a clear plan for the distribution of assets, we can prevent disputes among family members and ensure that those we care about are provided for in the way we intend. For example, we can include provisions for minor children or individuals with special needs by offering them financial security and guardianship arrangements if necessary. An estate plan can also help protect children from misspending their inheritance, help protect it from being subject to creditors, or help protect it from future ex-spouses.

By clearly outlining the distribution of assets in advance through estate planning, we can minimize potential conflicts among family members after we are gone. This not only provides peace of mind during our lifetime but also ensures harmony among our heirs.

Minimizing Taxes

A significant benefit of estate planning is minimizing taxes and costs associated with asset transfer. Through proper estate planning, we can take advantage of strategies that help reduce tax liabilities on inherited assets. By doing so, more wealth can be passed on to our loved ones instead of being diminished by hefty tax bills.

Moreover, effective estate planning allows us to address potential expenses related to probate court proceedings and other legal formalities after death. This means there will be fewer financial burdens on those who inherit from us since unnecessary costs have been minimized through careful planning. For example, we can opt for a pre-paid funeral or make charitable donations to reduce our estate’s tax burden and costs.

Key Components of an Effective Estate Plan

The Importance of a Will

Having a will is crucial. This legal document ensures that our assets are distributed according to our wishes after we pass away. For example, if I want my vintage record collection to go to my niece and my savings to be split equally between my siblings, I need a will in place.

A will also allows us to name an executor who will carry out these instructions and settle any outstanding debts or liabilities with our estate. By clearly outlining everything from beneficiaries to specific items or amounts, we can prevent potential disputes among family members and creditors. This expedites the probate process. 

Often, people assume a will prevents probate. It does not. Instead, a will is a guide for the probate court on how you wish your assets to be distributed after you are gone. A trust is the primary tool for avoiding probate.

Utilizing Trusts

In addition to wills, trusts are another essential tool in effective estate planning. They offer various benefits such as managing and protecting assets during our lifetime and ensuring their smooth transfer upon death. By setting up trusts, we can control how and when our assets are distributed while potentially minimizing estate taxes. 

For instance, if we have minor children or individuals with special needs who require ongoing financial support, establishing a trust can ensure that they receive the necessary care and resources even after we are gone. Moreover, trusts provide privacy since they do not go through probate court proceedings like wills do.

Powers of Attorney and Advance Healthcare Directives

Apart from wills and trusts, powers of attorney play a vital role in estate planning. These legal documents enable someone we trust to make financial or healthcare decisions on our behalf if we become incapacitated due to illness or injury. 

A durable power of attorney allows us to appoint an agent who will manage our financial affairs if we become incapacitated. It's comforting to know that someone we trust will handle bill payments, investments, or property transactions if we're unable to do so ourselves.

Likewise, a healthcare power of attorney is vital as it designates someone to make medical decisions on our behalf if we're unable to communicate our wishes due to illness or injury. This ensures that medical treatments align with what we would have wanted while providing peace of mind during challenging times.

Naming Beneficiaries for Retirement Accounts and Life Insurance Policies

Another critical aspect of estate planning involves naming beneficiaries for retirement accounts and life insurance policies. Doing so ensures that these assets bypass probate court and directly pass on to the designated individuals or entities upon our passing. This simple step can save time and money while ensuring that our loved ones receive the intended inheritance promptly.

Common Estate Planning Tools and Strategies

Revocable Living Trusts

A revocable living trust is a popular estate planning tool that allows for the management and distribution of assets while avoiding probate. This means that our loved ones can access these assets without having to go through the lengthy and costly probate process. With a revocable living trust, we can also make changes or revoke it if our circumstances change throughout our lifetime, providing flexibility.

For example, let's say we own multiple properties in different states. By placing these properties into a revocable living trust, we can streamline the transfer of ownership to our heirs without the need for separate probate proceedings in each state. This saves time and money for our beneficiaries.

Another benefit is privacy. Unlike wills, which become public record after going through probate, trusts provide confidentiality as they are not subject to public scrutiny.

Gifting Strategies

Gifting strategies can help reduce the size of an estate for tax purposes. By gifting assets during our lifetime, we can lower the overall value of our estate that may be subject to estate taxes upon our passing. For instance, giving monetary gifts or transferring property to family members now reduces the taxable value of what remains in our estate later on.

However, it is crucial to consider potential gift tax implications when employing gifting strategies. The IRS has annual gift tax exclusion limits that should be considered when making substantial gifts.

Life Insurance

Life insurance is another essential component of estate planning. It provides liquidity to cover estate taxes or provide for loved ones after death. In this way, life insurance ensures that there are funds available to settle any outstanding debts and expenses without requiring liquidation of other assets intended for inheritance by beneficiaries. Moreover, life insurance proceeds generally pass outside of probate directly to named beneficiaries promptly after death.

Providing for Loved Ones with Special Needs

Trusts not only safeguard assets but also ensure that our loved ones with special needs are taken care of even after we are gone. For instance, establishing a special needs trust for a family member with disabilities can provide ongoing financial support for them without affecting their eligibility for government assistance. Our firm is uniquely qualified to assist families and individuals with these types of trusts.

Overcoming Misconceptions and Getting Started with Your Estate Plan

Importance for Everyone

Estate planning is not just for the wealthy. Many people mistakenly believe this, but it is crucial for individuals of all income levels. Organizing our affairs and ensuring that our wishes are carried out in the event of incapacity or death is not exclusive to any one economic status.

It is also important to understand that estate planning is an ongoing process, not something we do once and forget about. As life changes, so should our estate plan. This means regularly reviewing and updating documents to reflect any major life events such as marriage, divorce, births, deaths, or significant changes in financial status.

Taking Action Early

Procrastination often prevents us from getting started with estate planning. We might think we're too young or don't have enough assets to worry about it yet. However, starting early allows us to make decisions without feeling rushed or pressured by unexpected circumstances.

Partnering with an experienced estate planning attorney can also alleviate some of the stress associated with this process. They can guide us through the necessary steps and help tailor a plan specific to our needs while addressing any questions or concerns along the way.


Estate planning is crucial for securing our financial legacies and ensuring that our loved ones are taken care of according to our wishes. Proactive planning offers peace of mind and safeguards for our family's future.

With this in mind, we should take steps to initiate or review our estate plans. Seeking professional guidance and leveraging the insights shared can help us navigate the complexities of estate planning with confidence.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Estate Planning?

Estate planning involves making arrangements for the management and distribution of your assets after your death. It typically includes wills, trusts, powers of attorney, and other legal documents to ensure that your wishes are carried out.

Why is Estate Planning Important?

Estate planning allows you to specify how you want your assets distributed and who should manage them if you become incapacitated. It can also minimize taxes and legal fees, provide for loved ones, and support charitable causes.

Which Documents are Essential for an Estate Plan?

Key documents include a will, power of attorney for finances, advance healthcare directive (living will), and possibly a trust. These documents outline how you want decisions made on your behalf if you're unable to make them yourself.

How Do Trusts and Powers of Attorney Factor into Estate Planning?

Trusts allow you to transfer assets to beneficiaries without going through probate court while maintaining control over the assets until certain conditions are met. Powers of attorney designate someone to make financial or medical decisions on your behalf if necessary.

When Should I Start Estate Planning?

It's never too early to start estate planning. Life is unpredictable, so it's best to have a plan in place as soon as possible. Reviewing and updating your estate plan regularly ensures that it aligns with changes in laws or personal circumstances.

How Often Should I Review My Estate Plan?

You should review your estate plan at least every three years or whenever there is a change in your family (including the quality of relationships), a change in what you own, or a change in the law.

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Your Michigan Estate Planning Attorney: The Benefits of Early Planning

Your Michigan Estate Planning Attorney: The Benefits of Early Planning

Seeking professional guidance for estate planning in Michigan? A skilled estate planning attorney is crucial to safeguarding your assets and ensuring your wishes are legally upheld. From drafting wills and trusts to navigating probate processes, a knowledgeable attorney can provide invaluable assistance towards protecting your legacy.

Understanding the Basics of Estate Planning

Managing and Distributing Assets

Estate planning is the process of managing and distributing assets after death. It involves creating legal documents such as wills, trusts, and powers of attorney to ensure that your wishes are carried out. By working with a Michigan estate planning attorney, individuals can make informed decisions about how their assets should be handled upon their passing.

Estate plans encompass various aspects, including real estate properties, bank accounts, investments, life insurance policies, personal belongings, and more. Through careful consideration and professional guidance from an estate planning attorney, individuals can establish a comprehensive plan for the distribution of their assets in accordance with their desires.

The Importance of Understanding Estate Planning

Understanding the intricacies of estate planning is crucial for ensuring that one's loved ones are provided for in the future. Without proper estate planning measures in place, there may be disputes among family members regarding asset distribution or unintended tax consequences. For example:

  • A well-crafted estate plan can help minimize potential tax liabilities on inherited assets.
  • By clearly outlining beneficiaries and specifying asset distribution in legal documents, individuals can prevent conflicts among heirs.

Working closely with a knowledgeable Michigan estate planning attorney allows individuals to navigate complex legal requirements while safeguarding their assets for future generations.

The Importance of Having a Will

Asset Distribution

A will is a legal document that ensures that your hard-earned assets are distributed according to your wishes. Having a will allows you to make decisions about who will inherit specific items and ensures that cherished possessions go to the right people. For example, if you want to leave a family heirloom or valuable piece of art to a particular individual, it is essential to outline this in your will.

Guardianship Appointment

When discussing estate planning with an attorney, they may highlight the significance of appointing guardians for minor children in your will. This decision is vital as it ensures that someone you trust and approve of takes care of your children if something happens to you and the other parent.

Selecting the Right Estate Planning Attorney

Expert Guidance

Seeking legal advice from a Michigan estate planning attorney is crucial for navigating the intricate web of estate laws. Working with an experienced attorney provides invaluable guidance and ensures that your estate plan complies with all relevant regulations and laws. They have the knowledge to steer you through complex legal processes, making sure that your assets are protected and distributed according to your wishes.

An attorney specializing in estate planning can offer tailored solutions based on individual circumstances. They work closely with their clients and understand their unique needs and goals to create a customized estate plan. This personalized approach ensures that every aspect of the plan aligns with specific requirements, whether it involves setting up trusts, drafting wills, or addressing tax implications.

The Importance of Choosing Wisely

The selection of an estate planning attorney holds significance in determining the efficacy of the entire process. It's imperative to choose an attorney who not only possesses expertise in this field but also resonates with your objectives and values. Consider Michigan Law Center as they specialize in providing comprehensive support for individuals seeking adept legal counsel for their estate planning needs.

When selecting an estate planning attorney, consider factors such as experience, specialization in this area of law, client testimonials, and overall reputation within the legal community. Taking these aspects into account ensures that you entrust this critical responsibility to a professional who can navigate complexities effectively while safeguarding your interests.

Benefits of Early Estate Planning

Peace of Mind and Family Harmony

Early estate planning offers numerous benefits including providing peace of mind and reducing family disputes. By creating a comprehensive estate plan ahead of time, individuals can ensure that their wishes are clearly communicated and legally documented. This not only helps to minimize the potential for disagreements among family members but also alleviates the emotional burden on loved ones during difficult times. For example, designating beneficiaries for assets and establishing guardianship for minor children in advance can prevent confusion or conflict after one's passing.

Planning Ahead for Changing Circumstances 

Another advantage of early estate planning is the ability to make adjustments as circumstances change over time. Life events such as marriage, divorce, birth of children or grandchildren, changes in financial status, or acquiring new assets may necessitate modifications to an existing estate plan. By initiating the process early on with an experienced estate planning attorney, individuals can proactively address potential changes and ensure that their plans remain aligned with their current situation.

Maximizing Tax Benefits and Asset Protection

Initiating estate planning early allows individuals to take advantage of various tax benefits while protecting their assets. Through strategies like establishing trusts or making gifts within allowable limits, individuals can minimize tax liabilities both during their lifetime and after they pass away. By safeguarding assets through proper legal mechanisms such as wills and trusts from an early stage, individuals can protect their wealth from potential creditors or other claims.

Charitable donations also play a significant role in reducing tax liabilities. A skilled attorney can advise clients on incorporating charitable giving into their estate plans to achieve both philanthropic goals and favorable tax outcomes. By leveraging these strategies under the guidance of a knowledgeable professional, individuals can effectively minimize taxes on their estates.

Healthcare Directives

Working with a Michigan estate planning attorney allows you to proactively plan for medical decisions in the event you become incapacitated. Healthcare directives, such as living wills and healthcare power of attorney, allow you to outline your preferences for medical care if you are unable to communicate your wishes. For example, you can specify whether you want life-sustaining treatment or pain management in certain situations.

These documents provide clarity for your family and healthcare providers and ensure that your wishes regarding medical care are known and respected. By including healthcare directives in your estate plan, you can alleviate potential disagreements among family members about critical medical decisions.

Peace of Mind

For families with special needs individuals or adults who require ongoing care, proper estate planning is crucial. A knowledgeable Michigan estate planning attorney can help you create a plan that addresses their unique needs and ensures they receive the care and support they require even after you're no longer able to provide it yourself.

Role of Trusts in Asset Protection

Privacy and Control

A Michigan estate planning attorney can help individuals establish trusts to ensure privacy, control, and flexibility in asset distribution. Unlike wills, trusts are private documents that do not go through probate court, keeping the details of the estate plan confidential. They are powerful tools that ensure a seamless transition of wealth to intended heirs without court intervention or public scrutiny.

Trusts also offer a significant degree of control over how assets are managed and distributed. Through a trust, the grantor (the person creating the trust) can specify detailed instructions on when and how assets should be distributed to beneficiaries. This control ensures that assets are used according to the grantor's wishes even after their passing.

Asset Protection and Tax Minimization

One essential role of trusts is protecting assets from creditors and legal claims. By placing assets into certain types of trusts, individuals can shield them from potential lawsuits or financial difficulties while still retaining some benefit from those assets during their lifetime.

Moreover, utilizing trusts as part of an estate plan can effectively minimize estate taxes by taking advantage of various tax-saving strategies available through different types of trusts. For instance, irrevocable life insurance trusts (ILITs) enable individuals to exclude life insurance proceeds from their taxable estates.

The Consequences of Delaying Estate Planning

Intestacy and State Laws

Delaying the establishment of your estate plan can result in intestacy, where state laws govern the distribution of your assets. Without a proper plan in place, your assets may not be distributed according to your wishes.

Intestacy could lead to family disputes, as loved ones may have differing opinions on how assets should be divided. This lack of clarity can create tension and strain relationships among family members.

High Taxes and Lengthy Court Processes

Procrastinating on estate planning may also expose your estate to higher taxes. Without strategic measures in place, a significant portion of your assets could go towards taxes rather than benefiting your intended beneficiaries.

Furthermore, without an estate plan, the legal process can become lengthy and complex for your loved ones. They may encounter difficulties accessing or managing the assets left behind due to the absence of clear instructions.

By not proactively working with a Michigan estate planning attorney, you can burden those you care about most by leaving them with financial uncertainties and legal complexities during an already emotionally challenging time.

Closing Thoughts

The basics of estate planning, the importance of having a will, the right estate planning attorney, and the benefits of early estate planning are crucial points in securing your family's financial future. Incorporating trusts for asset protection, minimizing taxes, and addressing healthcare directives further solidify a comprehensive estate plan. Individuals can take proactive measures to ensure their loved ones' well-being and financial security by recognizing the consequences of delaying estate planning.

Take charge of your future today by consulting with a reputable Michigan estate planning attorney. Begin implementing these essential strategies to safeguard your assets and provide for your family's needs. Don't wait until it's too late. Act now to secure peace of mind for you and your loved ones.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is estate planning?

Estate planning involves making arrangements for the management and distribution of your assets after your death. This typically includes creating a will, establishing trusts, and designating beneficiaries for insurance policies and retirement accounts.

Why is it important to have a will?

Having a will ensures that your assets are distributed according to your wishes after your death. It also allows you to name guardians for minor children and specify funeral arrangements. If someone has not transferred ownership of an asset to their trust, the will can “pour” the assets into the trust after death.

How do I select the right estate planning attorney?

When selecting an estate planning attorney, consider their experience in this area of law, client testimonials, and whether they specialize in the specific services you require such as wills, trusts, or probate.

What are the benefits of early estate planning?

Early estate planning allows you to minimize potential family disputes over inheritance, reduce tax liabilities on your assets, protect beneficiaries' interests through trusts, and ensure that healthcare directives reflect your preferences.

How can I minimize taxes and avoid probate through estate planning?

Strategies such as setting up revocable living trusts, irrevocable trusts, or gifting assets during one's lifetime can help eliminate probate during life and after death as well as minimize tax obligations. Utilizing beneficiary designations on certain accounts can also help bypass probate proceedings.

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Does Divorce Impact an Estate Plan?

The Changes That Come with the End of a Marriage

When a couple gets divorced, their estate plan needs to be updated. This is because the original plan was likely based on the assumption that the couple would always be together. Now that divorce is on the horizon, it's important to make sure your estate plan reflects your new circumstances. If you don't update your estate plan after divorce, you could end up with a lot of problems down the road. In this blog, read about the impact of divorce on an estate plan and how to make changes to reflect your new situation.

Changes to an Estate Plan After a Divorce

Understandably, divorce can have a significant impact on all aspects of life, including your estate plan. If you have gone through the process of creating an estate plan, it is important to review and update your documents after your divorce is finalized. Here are some key changes to keep in mind:

Beneficiary Designations

If you named your former spouse as a beneficiary on any accounts (life insurance policy, retirement accounts, etc.), be sure to update the beneficiaries to reflect your current wishes.


If you named your former spouse as the guardian for any minor children, you may wish to appoint someone new in their place.

Power of Attorney

If you named your former spouse as an agent under a durable power of attorney, you will need to appoint someone new.

Wills and Trusts

If your former spouse is named as executor or trustee of your estate, you will need to name someone new in their place. You may also need to make changes to the distribution of assets in your will or trust.

Ask for Help from an Estate Planning Attorney

If you have any questions about updating your estate plan after a divorce, contact an experienced estate planning attorney and ask for their guidance. They can give you the help you need to make the most informed choice for your future.

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What is a Retirement Trust?

Planning for the Future

When it comes to planning for your financial future, there are a lot of different options to choose from. One option that many people don't know about is the retirement trust. A retirement trust can be a valuable part of your estate plan in Michigan. In this blog, learn what a retirement trust is and how it can help you secure your retirement future!

Defining a Retirement Trust

A retirement trust is defined as an irrevocable trust created for the primary purpose of holding retirement assets, such as 401(k)s, IRAs, and other pension or profit-sharing plans. The retirement trust is designed to provide benefits to the settlor during their retirement years and can be structured in a number of ways to achieve this goal.

Why Would You Want a Retirement Trust?

There are several reasons why someone might opt to create a retirement trust as part of their estate plan. One reason is that it can help manage retirement assets and distribute them according to the settlor's wishes. Another reason is that a retirement trust can provide tax advantages. For example, if the settlor dies before they have withdrawn all of the funds from their retirement account. In that case, those funds can be distributed to their beneficiaries without incurring any tax penalties.

How Does a Retirement Trust Work?

A retirement trust works by holding retirement assets in an account that is managed by a trustee. The trustee is responsible for investing the retirement assets and distributing them according to the terms of the trust. The settlor can choose to have the trust pay out benefits during their lifetime or after their death.

Work with an Estate Planning Attorney

Creating a retirement trust is just one way to plan for retirement. There are many other options available, so it's important to speak with a qualified estate planning attorney to determine what's best for you and your family. If you have questions about retirement trusts or other aspects of estate planning, contact the team at Michigan Law Center, PLLC today. We would be happy to help you plan your most effective future.

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Wills vs. Trusts in Michigan

Planning for the Future

Many people interested in estate planning are unsure of the difference between wills and trusts. While both instruments allow you to distribute your assets after death, there are some key differences between the two. Keep reading to learn the differences between wills and trusts in Michigan to make the best decision for you and your family.


A will is a document that directs how your property will be distributed after you die. You can use a will to:

  • Name an executor who will oversee the distribution of your property.
  • Appoint a guardian for your minor children.
  • Designate beneficiaries for your property, including family members, friends, charities, or organizations.


A trust is another way to direct how your assets will be distributed after you die, but with some important differences from wills. Trusts can be revocable or irrevocable. Revocable trusts can be changed at any point during the settlor's lifetime, while irrevocable trusts cannot be changed once they are created. This means that with a trust you can:

  • Place conditions on how and when assets are distributed.
  • Avoid probate, which is the legal process of distributing a person's assets after they die.
  • Reduce or eliminate estate taxes.

Differences Between Wills and Trusts

While wills and trusts both allow you to direct how your assets will be distributed after you die, there are some important differences to consider. These include:


As mentioned above, one of the main advantages of using a trust is that it can help you avoid probate. With a will, your assets will go through probate after you die. Probate can be time-consuming and expensive, so avoiding it can be a major advantage.


With a will, you have less control over your assets' distribution than with a trust. With a trust, you can place conditions on how and when assets are distributed, which gives you more control over what happens to your assets after you die.


Another advantage of using a trust is that it can help you reduce or eliminate estate taxes. With a will, your assets may be subject to estate taxes when you die.

Work with an Estate Planning Attorney

Deciding whether to use a will or a trust is an important decision in Michigan estate planning. If you have questions about wills vs. trusts, or any other aspect of estate planning, contact an experienced Michigan estate planning attorney today.