The federal government recently extended minimum wage and overtime protections to most home health care workers. If you are hiring a caregiver for yourself or an elderly loved one, you need to become familiar with the rules, even if the paid caregiver is a family member.
Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), employers who hire casual babysitters and domestic service workers to provide “companionship services” to elderly persons or persons with illnesses, injuries, or disabilities are not required to pay the minimum wage or provide overtime pay. Therefore, if you directly hire a caregiver whose job it is to solely keep the elderly person company (for example, taking the client for walks, playing games with the client, reading, or accompanying the client on errands), then FLSA protections do not apply.
However, the companionship services exemption is not applicable when the caregiver spends more than 20 percent of his or her workweek performing “care services.” Care services are defined as assisting the client with activities of daily living, including dressing, feeding, bathing, toileting, transportation, light housework, managing finances, taking medication, and arranging medical care. Caregivers who perform tasks for the entire household and caregivers who perform medical services are also not covered under the companionship exemption. In addition, if a home health care agency is the caregiver’s employer, the home health care agency cannot ever claim the companionship exemption.
The rules for live-in caregivers are slightly different. If you hire the live-in caregiver directly, you must pay the caregiver minimum wage, but you are not required to pay overtime. Third-party employers (such as health care agencies) that hire live-in workers are required to pay overtime. Under the FLSA, to be a “live-in” home care worker, the worker must either live at the client’s home full-time or spend at least 120 hours or five consecutive days or nights in the client’s home per week. Caregivers who live with clients are not necessarily working the entire time they are at the house, and employers do not need to pay for sleep time, mealtime, or other off-duty time.
You can hire family members as care workers and the same rules apply to them as to non-family care providers. If you hire family members, you must pay them overtime and minimum wage as long as they are spending more than 20 percent of their time on care services. However, it is very important to have a written plan of care detailing the family member’s working hours and obligations, so it is clear what is work time and what is family time.
The federal minimum wage in 2016 is $7.25 per hour, but states may have higher rates. Employees who are entitled to overtime pay can receive one and a half times their normal rate for every hour worked over 40 hours a week.
Regardless of whom you hire to provide care for yourself or your loved one, you should have a written caregiver contract detailing the caregiver’s rights and responsibilities. Contact your attorney to make sure you are following the law when it comes to hiring a caregiver.
The Department of Labor has produced a “Paying Minimum Wage and Overtime to Home Care Workers” guide for families on the FLSA requirements.
Saying that there has been “undue influence” is often used as a reason to contest a will or estate plan, but what does it mean?
Undue influence occurs when someone exerts pressure on an individual, causing that individual to act contrary to his or her wishes and to the benefit of the influencer or the influencer’s friends. The pressure can take the form of deception, harassment, threats, or isolation. Often the influencer separates the individual from their loved ones in order to coerce. The elderly and infirm are usually more susceptible to undue influence.
To prove a loved one was subject to undue influence in drafting an estate plan, you have to show that the loved one disposed of his or her property in a way that was unexpected under the circumstances, that he or she is susceptible to undue influence (because of illness, age, frailty, or a special relationship with the influencer), and that the person who exerted the influence had the opportunity to do so. Generally, the burden of proving undue influence is on the person asserting undue influence. However, if the alleged influencer had a fiduciary relationship with your loved one, the burden may be on the influencer to prove that there was no undue influence. People who have a fiduciary relationship can include a child, a spouse, or an agent under a power of attorney. For more information on contesting a will, go here.
When drawing up a will or estate plan, it is important to avoid even the appearance of undue influence. For example, if you are planning on leaving everything to your daughter who is also your primary caregiver, your other children may argue that your daughter took advantage of her position to influence you. To avoid the appearance of undue influence, do not involve any family members who are inheriting under your will in drafting your will. Family members should not be present when you discuss the will with your attorney or when you sign it. To be totally safe, family members shouldn’t even drive or accompany you to the attorney’s office. You can also get a formal assessment of your mental capabilities done by a medical professional before you draft estate planning documents. For more information on preventing a will contest, go here.